#3697. 印欧語根 *spek- に由来する英単語を探る[etymology][indo-european][latin][greek][metathesis][word_family][lexicology]


 昨日の記事「#3696. ボキャビルのための「最も役に立つ25の語のパーツ」」 ([2019-06-10-1]) で取り上げたなかでも最上位に挙げられている spec(t) という連結形 (combining_form) について,今回はさらに詳しくみてみよう.
 この連結形は印欧語根 *spek- にさかのぼる.『英語語源辞典』の巻末にある「印欧語根表」より,この項を引用しよう.

spek- to observe. 《Gmc》[その他] espionage, spy. 《L》 aspect, auspice, conspicuous, despicable, despise, especial, expect, frontispiece, haruspex, inspect, perspective, prospect, respect, respite, species, specimen, specious, spectacle, speculate, suspect. 《Gk》 bishop, episcopal, horoscope, sceptic, scope, -scope, -scopy, telescope.

 また,語源の取り扱いの詳しい The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language の巻末には,"Indo-European Roots" なる小辞典が付随している.この小辞典から spek- の項目を再現すると,次のようになる.

spek- To observe. Oldest form *spek̂-, becoming *spek- in centum languages.
▲ Derivatives include espionage, spectrum, despise, suspect, despicable, bishop, and telescope.
   I. Basic form *spek-. 1a. ESPY, SPY, from Old French espier, to watch; b. ESPIONAGE, from Old Italian spione, spy, from Germanic derivative *speh-ōn-, watcher. Both a and b from Germanic *spehōn. 2. Suffixed form *spek-yo-, SPECIMEN, SPECTACLE, SPECTRUM, SPECULATE, SPECULUM, SPICE; ASPECT, CIRCUMSPECT, CONSPICUOUS, DESPISE, EXPECT, FRONTISPIECE, INSPECT, INTROSPECT, PERSPECTIVE, PERSPICACIOUS, PROSPECT, RESPECT, RESPITE, RETROSPECT, SPIEGELEISEN, SUSPECT, TRANSPICUOUS, from Latin specere, to look at. 3. SPECIES, SPECIOUS; ESPECIAL, from Latin speciēs, a seeing, sight, form. 4. Suffixed form *spek-s, "he who sees," in Latin compounds. a. Latin haruspex . . . ; b. Latin auspex . . . . 5. Suffixed form *spek-ā-. DESPICABLE, from Latin (denominative) dēspicārī, to despise, look down on (dē-), down . . .). 6. Suffixed metathetical form *skep-yo-. SKEPTIC, from Greek skeptesthai, to examine, consider.
   II. Extended o-grade form *spoko-. SCOPE, -SCOPE, -SCOPY; BISHOP, EPISCOPAL, HOROSCOPE, TELESCOPE, from metathesized Greek skopos, on who watches, also object of attention, goal, and its denominative skopein (< *skop-eyo-), to see. . . .


 ・ 寺澤 芳雄(編) 『英語語源辞典』 研究社,1997年.
 ・ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 4th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006.

Referrer (Inside): [2019-06-12-1]

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