#3655. 国家が唯一の国語を要求する理由[sociolinguistics][standardisation][language_planning]


 最近,英語の標準化の歴史について再考する機会があり,Haugen の古典的な論文を読み直してみた.そこに,近代国家の目指すところは,"internal cohesion" と "external distinction" であるという寸鉄人を刺す文句をみつけた.その前後の文脈もカバーしつつ,引用しよう.

   The definition of a nation is a problem for historians and other social scientists; we may accept the idea that it is the effective unit of international political action, as reflected in the organization of the United Nations General Assembly. As a political unit it will presumably be more effective if it is also a social unit, it minimizes internal differences and maximizes external ones. On the individual's personal and local identity it superimposes a national one by identifying his ego with that of all others within the nation and separating it from that of all others outside the nation. In a society that is essentially familial or tribal or regional it stimulates a loyalty beyond the primary groups, but discourages any conflicting loyalty to other nations. The ideal is: internal cohesion--external distinction.
   Since the encouragement of such loyalty requires free and rather intense communication within the nation, the national ideal demands that there be a single linguistic code by means of which this communication can take place. . . . On the other hand, a nation feels handicapped if it is required to make use of more than one language for official purposes, as is the case in Switzerland, Belgium, Yugoslavia, Canada, and many other countries. (Haugen 927--28)

 国家は対内的には "internal cohesion" を目指し,対外的には "external distinction" を求める.これを国語制定や標準語化という言語政策の観点から言い直せば,国家は,同じく Haugen のいうように言語に対して "minimum variation in form" と "maximum variation in function" を要求するものだ,ということになろう.国民のあいだで政治的忠誠心を培うためには,濃密なコミュニケーションが必要であり,したがって唯一の共通語が求められるという論理のつながりも,非常にわかりやすい.
 関連して,「#2742. Haugen の言語標準化の4段階」 ([2016-10-29-1]) と「#2745. Haugen の言語標準化の4段階 (2)」 ([2016-11-01-1]) も参照されたい.

 ・ Haugen, Einar. "Dialect, Language, Nation." American Anthropologist. 68 (1966): 922--35.

[ | 固定リンク | 印刷用ページ ]

Powered by WinChalow1.0rc4 based on chalow