#3110. 「宣教師語」[japanese][pidgin][code-switching][bilingualism][sociolinguistics][variety]


 アメリカ人でモルモン教徒の宣教師が,若い頃,2年間ほど九州と沖縄に滞在していたときに用いていたという「宣教師語」こと "Senkyoshigo" に関する論文を読む機会があった.Senkyoshigo は宣教師仲間のあいだで常用される言葉であり,日本語由来の内容語を多用する点に特徴がある.Senkyoshigo 使いだった論文執筆者の Smout 氏は,当初その奇妙な言葉に驚いたが,やがてすっかり慣れてしまい,標準英語を話すのが難しくなってしまったという.例えば,次のような1節を見てみよう.文中の fud は「お風呂」,dish-chan とは「お皿ちゃん」ということで「皿洗い係」を指すようだ.

Hey dode, okinasai! It's time I got a start on asagohan so we can have some oishii muffins before benkyokai. You're dish-chan this week, so you go take the first fud. Come on in and I'll show you how to tsukeru the mono.

 これは (1) 日本語を lexifier とするピジン語のようでもあり,(2) 日英両言語のバイリンガルによる code-switching のようでもあり,(3) 遊び心で作り上げた遊戯言語のようでもある.実際,「宣教師語」を3種類のいずれかに的確に区分することはできそうになく,(社会)言語学的にはこれらの中間に位置するというほかない珍妙な言語変種,あるいは言語使用である.

   Senkyoshigo is clearly a phenomenon that cannot be adequately categorized within current linguistic terms. In terms of its origin and its similarity to varieties that have been previously classified as pidgins, it is a pidgin. In terms of the rule that govern its interface with Japanese and English, it is bilingual code-switching. In terms of its rather ordinary English grammar, its lack of speakers who rely on it as a sole means of communication, and the playful exuberance with which it is used, it is is (sic) a recreational language. In the final analysis, the most important factors that determine the label one affixs (sic) to this variety will probably be social and political. Those who think the phenomenon is significant and interesting will tend not to equate it with a child's language game but will see in it examples of other linguistic processes at work. They may classify it as a near-pidgin which has not stabilized because it remains in the presence of its lexifier language and because its most proficient speakers use it for only two years of their lives. Alternately, they may classify it as early bilingualism that would stabilize and regularize in a society that allowed continuing roles to emerge for each variety. For those who do not particularly value the language or find it interesting, it will probably seem to be a recreational language which in some minds ought to be suppressed but in most deserves only to be ignored.
   No matter how we label it, this missionary English of Japan is an unusual language phenomenon.

 関連して借用と code-switching の差異を巡っては,「#1661. 借用と code-switching の狭間」 ([2013-11-13-1]),「#1985. 借用と接触による干渉の狭間」 ([2014-10-03-1]),「#2009. 言語学における接触干渉2言語使用借用」 ([2014-10-27-1]) を参照.日本におけるピジン語については,「#2596. 「小笠原ことば」の変遷」 ([2016-06-05-1]) をどうぞ.

 ・ Smout, Kary D. "Senkyoshigo: A Missionary English of Japan." American Speech 63.2 (1988): 137--49.

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