#3096. 中英語期,英語の復権は徐ろに[reestablishment_of_english][history][toc][hundred_years_war]


 似たようなタイトルの記事「#706. 14世紀,英語の復権は徐ろに」 ([2011-04-03-1]) を以前に本ブログで書いているが,「14世紀」を今回のタイトルのように「中英語期」(1100--1500年)と入れ替えても,さして問題はない.「#131. 英語の復権」 ([2009-09-05-1]) で示した年表や,その他の reestablishment_of_english の記事で論じてきたように,イングランドにおける英語の地位の回復は,3世紀ほどのスパンでとらえるべき長々とした過程だった.
 Baugh and Cable の英語史概説書の第6章は "The Reestablishment of English, 1200--1500" と題されており,この長々とした過程を扱っているのだが,最初にこの箇所を初めて読んだときに,なんてダラダラとして読みにくい章かと思ったものである.1200--1500年のイングランドにおける英語とフランス語を巡る言語事情とその変化が説明されていくのだが,英語の復権がようやく2歩ほど進んだかと思えば,フランス語のしぶとい権威保持のもとで今度は1歩下がるといった,複雑な記述が続くのだ.英語の復権とフランス語の権威保持という2つの相反する流れが並行して走っており,実にわかりづらい.
 改めて Baugh and Cable の第6章を読みなおしたところ,結局のところ同章の冒頭に近い文章が,この時代の内容を最もよくとらえているということが分かった.

As long as England held its continental territory and the nobility of England were united to the continent by ties of property and kindred, a real reason existed for the continued use of French among the governing class in the island. If the English had permanently retained control over the two-thirds of France that they once held, French might have remained permanently in use in England. But shortly after 1200, conditions changed. England lost an important part of its possessions abroad. The nobility gradually relinquished their continental estates. A feeling of rivalry developed between the two countries, accompanied by an antiforeign movement in England and culminating in the Hundred Years' War. During the century and a half following the Norman Conquest, French had been not only natural but also more or less necessary to the English upper class; in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, its maintenance became increasingly artificial. For a time, certain new factors helped it to hold its ground, socially and officially. Meanwhile, however, social and economic changes affecting the English-speaking part of the population were taking place, and in the end numbers told. In the fourteenth century, English won its way back into universal use, and in the fifteenth century, French all but disappeared. (122)

 先に,この時代の英語の復権は2歩進んで1歩下がるかのようだと表現したが,Baugh and Cable の第6章を構成する第93--110節のいくつかのタイトルを「英語の復権を後押しした要因」と「フランス語の権威を保持した要因」とに粗く,緩く2分すると,次のようになる.

[ 英語の復権を後押しした要因 ]

 94. The Loss of Normandy
 95. Separation of the French and English Nobility
 97. The Reaction against Foreigners and the Growth of National Feeling
 101. Provincial Character of French in England
 102. The Hundred Years' War
 103. The Rise of the Middle Class
 104. General Adoption of English in the Fourteenth Century
 105. English in the Law Courts
 106. English in the Schools
 107. Increasing Ignorance of French in the Fifteenth Century
 109. The Use of English in Writing

[ フランス語の権威を保持した要因 ]

 96. French Reinforcements
 98. French Cultural Ascendancy in Europe
 100. Attempts to Arrest the Decline of French
 108. French as a Language of Culture and Fashion

 Baugh and Cable の目次については,「#2089. Baugh and Cable の英語史概説書の目次」 ([2015-01-15-1]),「#3091. Baugh and Cable の英語史概説書の目次よりランダムにクイズを作成」 ([2017-10-13-1]) を参照.

 ・ Baugh, Albert C. and Thomas Cable. A History of the English Language. 6th ed. London: Routledge, 2013.

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