#2942. ゲルマン語時代の音変化[sound_change][germanic][oe][vowel][i-mutation]


 今回は,Hamer (14--15) の古英語音変化入門書より,古英語に先立つゲルマン語時代の3種の注目すべき母音変化を紹介する.

Sound changeDescriptionExamples
Au > o unless followed by a nasal consonant, or by u or i/j in the following syllable. (By this is meant if the vowel element of the following syllable consisted of any u sound, or of any i sound or of any combination beginning with j.)bunden, holpen are both OE p.p. of Class III Strong Verbs, the u of bunden having been retained, because of the following n. god, gyden = 'god', goddess. gyden had earlier had i instead of e in its ending, and this i first caused the u to survive, then later caused it to change to y by i-mutation (see I below). Thus both the o and y in these forms derive from Gmc. u.
Be > i if followed by a nasal consonant, or by i/j in the following syllable.bindan, helpan are both OE infin. of Class III Strong Verbs. helpan has 3 sg. pres indic. hilpþ < Gmc. *hilpiþi.
Ceu > iu before i/j in the following syllable. 

 A については,「#1471. golden を生み出した音韻・形態変化」 ([2013-05-07-1]) も参照.A, B に共通する bindan の語形については,「#2084. drink--drank--drunkwin--won--won」 ([2015-01-10-1]) をどうぞ.また,いずれの音変化にも i-mutation が関与していることに注意.

 ・ Hamer, R. F. S. Old English Sound Changes for Beginners. Oxford: Blackwell, 1967.

Referrer (Inside): [2017-05-25-1]

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