#1845. 英語が非民主的な言語と呼ばれる理由 (2)[academy][linguistic_imperialism][sociolinguistics]


 「#134. 英語が民主的な言語と呼ばれる理由」 ([2009-09-08-1]) と「#1366. 英語が非民主的な言語と呼ばれる理由」 ([2013-01-22-1]) に引き続いての話題.
 [2009-09-08-1]の記事では,フランスでアカデミーが設立されて言語の統一が着々と図られたのに対し,イギリスではアカデミー設立の試みが失敗に終わったという歴史的経緯により,英語が「民主的な」言語と評されるのだと議論した.しかし,Millar (81) はそのようには考えていない.

. . . the academy was not founded. Johnson's triumphant celebration of English 'liberty' a generation or so later must be interpreted as an explanation of this failure. Yet when we look deeper into the ideologies framing English 'liberty', it quickly becomes apparent that the similarities between French-language and English-language ideologies during this era are greater than their differences. The language was in the hands of a Latinate and generally leisured elite.

 別の箇所で,Millar (107--08) は次のようにまとめている.

While the English-speaking world does not have the overt linguistic ideologies which the French-speaking world has, ideology has played and plays a significant part in the ways the English language is perceived by native speakers. These perceptions have changed over the years, due to social changes, but a centralised, non-dialectal, variety lies at its heart. Although ideological differences exist between those countries following the American model and those essentially following the British (or 'Commonwealth'), equivalent at the heart of both lies the social and linguistic power of the lower middle class, expressed through the maintenance of 'uniformity'. Again, the difference between these views and those found in France is not great.


 ・ Millar, Robert McColl. English Historical Sociolinguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2012.

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