#1566. existential there の起源 (2)[adverb][syntax][oe][grammaticalisation]


 昨日の記事[2013-08-09-1]に引き続き,存在の there の起源の問題について.位置を表わす指示的な用法の there を locative there と呼ぶことにすると,locative there の指示的な意味が薄まり,文法的な機能を帯びるようになったのが existential there であるというのが一般的な理解だろう.文法化 (grammaticalisation) の1例ということである.
 Bolinger は,文法化という用語こそ用いていないが,existential there の起源と発達を上記の流れでとらえている.以下は,Breivik の論文からの引用である(Breivik は存在の用法を there2 として,指示詞の用法を there1 として言及している).

Bolinger argues that there2 'is an extension of locative there' . . . and as such does refer to a location, but he characterizes this as a generalized location to which there2 refers 'in the same abstract way the the anaphoric it refers to a generalized "identity" in It was John who said that' . . . . According to Bolinger . . ., '[there2] "brings something into awareness", where "bring into" is the contribution of the position of there and other locational adverbs, and "awareness" is the contribution of there itself, specifically, awareness is the abstract location. . .' (337)

 Bolinger は,具体的な位置を表わす there1 が,抽象的な気付きを表わす there2 へ移行したと考えていることになる.
 Breivik は Bolinger のこの見解を "impressionistic account" (337) として否定的に評価しており,件の機能の移行は文証されないと主張する.むしろ,there1there2 の用法は,現代英語における区別とは異なるものの,すでに初期古英語でも明確に区別がつけられていたはずだと論じている.

There is no evidence in the material utilized for the present investigation that there2 originated as there1, meaning 'at that particular place'. We have presented conclusive evidence that there2 sentences occurred already in early OE. The factors governing the use or non-use of there2 in older English were, however, different from those operative today. If there2 did indeed derive from there1, the separation must have occurred before the OE period. Whether or not there2 carried any semantic weight in OE and ME is a question we know nothing about. However, to judge from my material, it does not seem likely that OE and ME there2 was used to refer to what Bolinger, in his discussion of present-day English there2, calls an 'abstract location'. (346)

 there1there2 は互いに起源的に無関係であるとまでは言わないものの,Breivik は,歴史時代までに両用法がはっきりと分かれていたという点を強調している.

 ・ Breivik, L. E. "A Note on the Genesis of Existential there." English Studies 58 (1977): 334--48.

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