Table of Contents



I. Loanwords (6.9)
A. Straight loans (5.7)
1. French: objet trouvé (1.6)
2. Japanese: bunraku (.9)
3. Italian: al dente (.7)
4. Spanish: macho (.5)
5. African languages: naira (.4)
6. German: Westpolitik (.3)
7. Hindi: bandhnu (.3)
8. Classical Greek: lexis (.3)
9. Yiddish: zoftig (.2)
10. Hebrew: aliyah (.2)
11. Chinese: dim sum (.1)
12. Russian: druzhinnik (.1)
13. Sanskrit: sarangi (.1)
B. Loans with blending (.7)
1. Loan translation: house of tolerance (maison de tolérance) (.6)
2. Folk etymology: mogul (Norwegian muge) (.1)
C. Loans with composition---innovative loans: bierkeller (.4)
D. Loan with shortening: femt- (Danish femten) (.1)

II. Shortenings (9.7)
A. Back formation: free-associate (1.4)
B. Abbreviation (8.3)
1. Of a whole morpheme (2.1)
a. Hind clipping of generic: op (art) (1.4)
b. Fore clipping of specific: (flash) cube (.4)
c. Other: (one)upmanship (.3)
2. Of part of a morpheme (2.4)
a. Hind clipping: Jag(uar sports car) (.9)
b. Fore clipping: Yard (from Montagnard) (.3)
c. Mid clipping (.4)
(1) Simple: nu(clear-powered com)plex (.2)
(2) Overlapping: musicasette (.2)
d. Mixed clipping: quas(i stell)ar (object), ro(ll on)-ro(ll off) ship, (di)meth(oxyphenylpen)icillin (.8)
3. Of orthographic constituents (3.8)
a. Orthoepic acronyms: Sam (Surface to Air Missile), Cobol (COmmon Business Oriented Language), Capcom (CAPsule COMmunicator) (1.2)
b. Alphabetisms: IUCD (IntraUterine Contraceptive Device) (2.2)
c. Mixed: QSTOL [ˈkyuwstowl] (Quiet Short Take-Off and Land-ing) (.2)
d. Orthographic abbreviations: p. ([British new] penny) (.2)

III. Composites (63.9)
A. Affixed forms (34.1)
1. Suffixed forms: jet setter (18.5)
55 suffixes: -age, -al, -ally, -ant, -ar, -arium, -ary, -ate, -atic, -ation, -ative, -ed, -ee, -eer, -er, -ers, -ese, -est, -et, -eteria, -ette, -ia, -((i)a)n, -iatrics, -ic, -ical, -ide, -ify, -in, -ing, -ion, -ish, -ism, -ist, -ite, -ity, -ium, -ive, -ize, -manship, -ness, -nik, -o, -ocracy, -oid, -ola, -(o)logy, -on, -ory, -s, -scape, -ship, -ster,-sville, -y
2. Prefixed forms: dehire (15.6)
90 prefixes: a-, aero-, Americano-, Anglo-, anti-, aqua-, astro-, audio-, bio-, cardio-, chemo-, cine-, cryo-, cyto-, de-, demi-, dis-, eco-, electro-, entero-, ethno-, euphori-, Euro-, exo-, extra-, fibrino-, fluki-, geo-, halo-, hetero-, holo-, hydro-, hyper-, hypno-, immuno-, integro-, inter-, intra-, kako-, kine-, leparo-, litho-, luteo-, macro-, magni-, maxi-, mega-, meta-, micro-, mini-, mis-, mono-, muco-, multi-, nano-, neo-, neuro-, non-, omni-, ortho-, paleo-, para-, peri-, photo-, phyto-, pico-, poly-, porno-, pre-, pro-, psycho-, re-, resisto-, rhabdo-, psychoto-, rifa-, socio-, sono-, sub-, super-, tele-, tetrahydro-, trans-, tropo-, turbo-, ultra-, un-, ur-, uro-, xeno-
B. Compound forms (29.8)
1. Nouns (25.5)
a. Endocentric (24.3)
(1) Attributive noun and head noun: surfacestructure, glue sniffing, weight-watcher (14.4)
(2) Adjective and noun: male chauvinist, matching funds (6.6)
(3) Verb and noun: thinktank (1.4)
(4) Coordinate nouns: jazz-rock (.8)
(5) Noun and prepositional phrase: theater of fact (.4)
(6) Particle and noun: off-sale (.4)
(.2)'>(7) Genitive and noun: hatter's shakes (.2)
(8) Noun and number: Consciousness I (.1)
b. Exocentric (1.2)
(1) Verb and particle: talk-in (1.0)
(2) Noun and particle: smog-out (.1)
(3) Reduplicating adjective: dumdum (.1)
2. Verbs (2.1)
a. Endocentric (1.8)
(1) Verb and particle: rounddown (.5)
(2) Particle and verb: overtechnologize (.5)
(3) Noun and verb: job-hop (.4)
(4) Verb and noun: go ape (.3)
(.1)'>(5) Verb and prepositional phrase: die on one's feet (.1)
b. Exocentric---noun and particle: art up (.3)
3. Adjectives (2.1)
a. Endocentric (.9)
(1) Noun and adjective: machine-readable (.8)
(2) Particle and adjective: counter-productive (.1)
b. Exocentric (1.2)
(1) Coordinate verbs: bait-and-switch (.3)
(2) Verb and noun: break-bulk (.1)
(3) Verb and particle: living-in (.1)
(4) Particle and verb: no-go (.1)
(5) Noun and particle: ton-up (.2)
(6) Particle and noun: in-house (.2)
(7) Adjective and noun: low-rise (.1)
(8) Noun and prepositional phrase: head-to-head (.1)
4. Prepositional phrase: like the clappers (.1)

IV. Blends (4.8)
A. Simple (3.6)
1. Of free forms (1.6)
a. Hind clipping of first element: admass (advertisement, mass) (.7)
b. Hind and fore clipping: slurb (slum, suburb) (.6)
c. Multiple hind clipping: quap (quark, anti-proton)(.2)
d. Alphabetism: CS (Ben Carson, Roger Staughton) (.1)
2. With bound forms (2.0)
a. Clipped stem and suffix: cosmonette (cosmonaut, -ette), juvie (juvenile delinquent, -ie), irtron (infra red spectrum, -on) (1.4)
b. Stem and clipped suffix: sandwicheria (sandwich, -teria) (.1)
c. Prefix and clipped stem: trimaran (tri-, catamaran), hembar (hem-, barley) (.5)
B. Overlapping: skyjacker (sky, hijacker), sexploitation (sex, exploitation), chunnel (channel, tunnel), artsy (arty, artsand crafts), yippie (hippie, yippie! Youth International Party) (1.2)

V. Shifts (14.2)
A. Without change in form (14.1)
1. With change in part of speech (6.4)
a. Nouns (2.0)
(1) From a verb-adverb: rip-off (1.2)
(2) From a verb: edit (.3)
(3) From an adjective: cool (.4)
(4) From a phrase: curtain-up (.1)
b. Verbs (2.1)
(1) From a noun: frag (1.9)
(2) From an interjection: zap (.2)
c. Adjectives (2.2)
(1) From a noun: cameo (1.4)
(2) From a verb-adverb: bolt-on (.2)
(3) From an interjection: right-on (.2)
(4) From a prepositional phrase: with-it (.2)
(5) From a clause: as-told-to (.2)
d. Interjection---from a noun phrase: no way (.1)
2. Without change in part of speech (7.7)
a. Nouns (5.6)
(1) Generalization: gameplan 'strategy'
(2) Specialization: habitat 'underwater vessel'
(3) Similitude: oreo 'establishment black'
(4) Metonymy: hardhat 'construction worker'
(5) Synecdoche: meat and potatoes 'basics'
b. Verbs: cosmeticize 'make more attractive or acceptable' (1.1)
c. Adjectives: instant 'requiring no planning or preparation' (1.0)
B. With change in form: Crow Jim 'prejudice against whites by blacks' (.1)

VI. Unknown etymology: cowabunga, haroosh, hincty, hobbit, pizzazz (.5)