Algeo's Classification of Neologisms



I. Loanwords (6.9)

A. Straight loans (5.7) - B. Loans with blending (.7) - C. Loans with composition---innovative loans: bierkeller (.4) - D. Loan with shortening: femt- (Danish femten) (.1)

A. Straight loans (5.7)

1. French: objet trouvé (1.6) - 2. Japanese: bunraku (.9) - 3. Italian: al dente (.7) - 4. Spanish: macho (.5) - 5. African languages: naira (.4) - 6. German: Westpolitik (.3) - 7. Hindi: bandhnu (.3) - 8. Classical Greek: lexis (.3) - 9. Yiddish: zoftig (.2) - 10. Hebrew: aliyah (.2) - 11. Chinese: dim sum (.1) - 12. Russian: druzhinnik (.1) - 13. Sanskrit: sarangi (.1)

1. French: objet trouvé (1.6)

2. Japanese: bunraku (.9)

3. Italian: al dente (.7)

4. Spanish: macho (.5)

5. African languages: naira (.4)

6. German: Westpolitik (.3)

7. Hindi: bandhnu (.3)

8. Classical Greek: lexis (.3)

9. Yiddish: zoftig (.2)

10. Hebrew: aliyah (.2)

11. Chinese: dim sum (.1)

12. Russian: druzhinnik (.1)

13. Sanskrit: sarangi (.1)

B. Loans with blending (.7)

1. Loan translation: house of tolerance (maison de tolérance) (.6) - 2. Folk etymology: mogul (Norwegian muge) (.1)

1. Loan translation: house of tolerance (maison de tolérance) (.6)

2. Folk etymology: mogul (Norwegian muge) (.1)

C. Loans with composition---innovative loans: bierkeller (.4)

D. Loan with shortening: femt- (Danish femten) (.1)

II. Shortenings (9.7)

A. Back formation: free-associate (1.4) - B. Abbreviation (8.3)

A. Back formation: free-associate (1.4)

B. Abbreviation (8.3)

1. Of a whole morpheme (2.1) - 2. Of part of a morpheme (2.4) - 3. Of orthographic constituents (3.8)

1. Of a whole morpheme (2.1)

a. Hind clipping of generic: op (art) (1.4)

b. Fore clipping of specific: (flash) cube (.4)

c. Other: (one)upmanship (.3)

2. Of part of a morpheme (2.4)

a. Hind clipping: Jag(uar sports car) (.9)

b. Fore clipping: Yard (from Montagnard) (.3)

c. Mid clipping (.4)

(1) Simple: nu(clear-powered com)plex (.2)
(2) Overlapping: musicasette (.2)

d. Mixed clipping: quas(i stell)ar (object), ro(ll on)-ro(ll off) ship, (di)meth(oxyphenylpen)icillin (.8)

3. Of orthographic constituents (3.8)

a. Orthoepic acronyms: Sam (Surface to Air Missile), Cobol (COmmon Business Oriented Language), Capcom (CAPsule COMmunicator) (1.2)

b. Alphabetisms: IUCD (IntraUterine Contraceptive Device) (2.2)

c. Mixed: QSTOL [ˈkyuwstowl] (Quiet Short Take-Off and Land-ing) (.2)

d. Orthographic abbreviations: p. ([British new] penny) (.2)

III. Composites (63.9)

A. Affixed forms (34.1) - B. Compound forms (29.8)

A. Affixed forms (34.1)

1. Suffixed forms: jet setter (18.5) - 2. Prefixed forms: dehire (15.6)

1. Suffixed forms: jet setter (18.5)

55 suffixes: -age, -al, -ally, -ant, -ar, -arium, -ary, -ate, -atic, -ation, -ative, -ed, -ee, -eer, -er, -ers, -ese, -est, -et, -eteria, -ette, -ia, -((i)a)n, -iatrics, -ic, -ical, -ide, -ify, -in, -ing, -ion, -ish, -ism, -ist, -ite, -ity, -ium, -ive, -ize, -manship, -ness, -nik, -o, -ocracy, -oid, -ola, -(o)logy, -on, -ory, -s, -scape, -ship, -ster,-sville, -y

2. Prefixed forms: dehire (15.6)

90 prefixes: a-, aero-, Americano-, Anglo-, anti-, aqua-, astro-, audio-, bio-, cardio-, chemo-, cine-, cryo-, cyto-, de-, demi-, dis-, eco-, electro-, entero-, ethno-, euphori-, Euro-, exo-, extra-, fibrino-, fluki-, geo-, halo-, hetero-, holo-, hydro-, hyper-, hypno-, immuno-, integro-, inter-, intra-, kako-, kine-, leparo-, litho-, luteo-, macro-, magni-, maxi-, mega-, meta-, micro-, mini-, mis-, mono-, muco-, multi-, nano-, neo-, neuro-, non-, omni-, ortho-, paleo-, para-, peri-, photo-, phyto-, pico-, poly-, porno-, pre-, pro-, psycho-, re-, resisto-, rhabdo-, psychoto-, rifa-, socio-, sono-, sub-, super-, tele-, tetrahydro-, trans-, tropo-, turbo-, ultra-, un-, ur-, uro-, xeno-

B. Compound forms (29.8)

1. Nouns (25.5) - 2. Verbs (2.1) - 3. Adjectives (2.1) - 4. Prepositional phrase: like the clappers (.1)

1. Nouns (25.5)

a. Endocentric (24.3)

(1) Attributive noun and head noun: surfacestructure, glue sniffing, weight-watcher (14.4)
(2) Adjective and noun: male chauvinist, matching funds (6.6)
(3) Verb and noun: thinktank (1.4)
(4) Coordinate nouns: jazz-rock (.8)
(5) Noun and prepositional phrase: theater of fact (.4)
(6) Particle and noun: off-sale (.4)
(7) Genitive and noun: hatter's shakes (.2)
(8) Noun and number: Consciousness I (.1)

b. Exocentric (1.2)

(1) Verb and particle: talk-in (1.0)
(2) Noun and particle: smog-out (.1)
(3) Reduplicating adjective: dumdum (.1)

2. Verbs (2.1)

a. Endocentric (1.8)

(1) Verb and particle: rounddown (.5)
(2) Particle and verb: overtechnologize (.5)
(3) Noun and verb: job-hop (.4)
(4) Verb and noun: go ape (.3)
(5) Verb and prepositional phrase: die on one's feet (.1)

b. Exocentric---noun and particle: art up (.3)

3. Adjectives (2.1)

a. Endocentric (.9)

(1) Noun and adjective: machine-readable (.8)
(2) Particle and adjective: counter-productive (.1)

b. Exocentric (1.2)

(1) Coordinate verbs: bait-and-switch (.3)
(2) Verb and noun: break-bulk (.1)
(3) Verb and particle: living-in (.1)
(4) Particle and verb: no-go (.1)
(5) Noun and particle: ton-up (.2)
(6) Particle and noun: in-house (.2)
(7) Adjective and noun: low-rise (.1)
(8) Noun and prepositional phrase: head-to-head (.1)

4. Prepositional phrase: like the clappers (.1)

IV. Blends (4.8)

A. Simple (3.6) - B. Overlapping: skyjacker (sky, hijacker), sexploitation (sex, exploitation), chunnel (channel, tunnel), artsy (arty, artsand crafts), yippie (hippie, yippie! Youth International Party) (1.2)

A. Simple (3.6)

1. Of free forms (1.6) - 2. With bound forms (2.0)

1. Of free forms (1.6)

a. Hind clipping of first element: admass (advertisement, mass) (.7)

b. Hind and fore clipping: slurb (slum, suburb) (.6)

c. Multiple hind clipping: quap (quark, anti-proton)(.2)

d. Alphabetism: CS (Ben Carson, Roger Staughton) (.1)

2. With bound forms (2.0)

a. Clipped stem and suffix: cosmonette (cosmonaut, -ette), juvie (juvenile delinquent, -ie), irtron (infra red spectrum, -on) (1.4)

b. Stem and clipped suffix: sandwicheria (sandwich, -teria) (.1)

c. Prefix and clipped stem: trimaran (tri-, catamaran), hembar (hem-, barley) (.5)

B. Overlapping: skyjacker (sky, hijacker), sexploitation (sex, exploitation), chunnel (channel, tunnel), artsy (arty, artsand crafts), yippie (hippie, yippie! Youth International Party) (1.2)

V. Shifts (14.2)

A. Without change in form (14.1) - B. With change in form: Crow Jim 'prejudice against whites by blacks' (.1)

A. Without change in form (14.1)

1. With change in part of speech (6.4) - 2. Without change in part of speech (7.7)

1. With change in part of speech (6.4)

a. Nouns (2.0)

(1) From a verb-adverb: rip-off (1.2)
(2) From a verb: edit (.3)
(3) From an adjective: cool (.4)
(4) From a phrase: curtain-up (.1)

b. Verbs (2.1)

(1) From a noun: frag (1.9)
(2) From an interjection: zap (.2)

c. Adjectives (2.2)

(1) From a noun: cameo (1.4)
(2) From a verb-adverb: bolt-on (.2)
(3) From an interjection: right-on (.2)
(4) From a prepositional phrase: with-it (.2)
(5) From a clause: as-told-to (.2)

d. Interjection---from a noun phrase: no way (.1)

2. Without change in part of speech (7.7)

a. Nouns (5.6)

(1) Generalization: gameplan 'strategy'
(2) Specialization: habitat 'underwater vessel'
(3) Similitude: oreo 'establishment black'
(4) Metonymy: hardhat 'construction worker'
(5) Synecdoche: meat and potatoes 'basics'

b. Verbs: cosmeticize 'make more attractive or acceptable' (1.1)

c. Adjectives: instant 'requiring no planning or preparation' (1.0)

B. With change in form: Crow Jim 'prejudice against whites by blacks' (.1)

VI. Unknown etymology: cowabunga, haroosh, hincty, hobbit, pizzazz (.5)